Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by foliar broths: roles of biocompounds and other attributes of the extracts.
Biosynthesis of nanoparticles has arisen as a promising alternative to conventional synthetic methodologies owing to its eco-friendly advantages, and the involved bioprotocol still needs further clarification. This research, for the first time from the standpoint of statistics, confirmed an electrostatic force or ionic bond-based interaction between the chloroauric ions and the involved bioconstituents and manifested that reducing sugars and flavonoids were both important reductants responsible for conversion of Au(III) to Au(0). The result also demonstrated that the proteins were not the reducing agents, yet they might be protection agents in biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Besides, a significant linear relationship was found between the anti-oxidant ability of the foliar broths and their capability to reduce Au(III) into Au(0). Furthermore, the preliminary investigation based on the boxplot on the size/shape distribution of the biosynthesized GNPs revealed that gold nanospheres with higher degree of homogeneity in size tended to be promoted by foliar broths containing higher content of reducing sugars/flavonoids and proteins. Otherwise, i.e., for those broths with lower content of the above biocompounds, sphere GNPs of wider size distribution or even gold nanotriangles tended to be fabricated.(See supplementary material 1
Hardware Design and Fault-Tolerant Synthesis for Digital Acoustofluidic Biochips
A digital microfluidic biochip (DMB) is an attractive platform for automating laboratory procedures in microbiology. To overcome the problem of cross-contamination due to fouling of the electrode surface in traditional DMBs, a contactless liquid handling biochip technology, referred to as acoustofluidics, has recently been proposed. A major challenge in operating this platform is the need for a control signal of frequency 24 MHz and voltage range +-10/+-20 V to activate the IDT units in the biochip. In this paper, we present a hardware design that can efficiently activate/de-activated each IDT, and can fully automate an bioprotocol. We also present a fault-tolerant synthesis technique that allows us to automatically map biomolecular protocols to acoustofluidic biochips. We develop and experimentally validate a velocity model, and use it to guide co-optimization for operation scheduling, module placement, and droplet routing in the presence of IDT faults. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synthesis method. Our results are expected to open new research directions on design automation of digital acoustofluidic biochips
Bio-electrospraying and aerodynamically assisted bio-jetting whole human blood: Interrogating cell surface marker integrity.
Bio-electrospraying and aerodynamically assisted bio-jetting are two direct cell handling approaches recently pioneered, which have demonstrated significant applicability to the life sciences. These two bioprotocols have undergone scientific rigor, which have seen these techniques been explored in conjunction with a wide range of immortalized, primary and stem cells, and those whole organisms. Those studies have demonstrated a cellular population of >70% viable post-treatment in comparison with controls. Although, these studies assessed cellular viability, cell surface molecules play a critical role in several cellular functions, in particular, have importance to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thus, in the studies reported herein, we demonstrate post-treated viable cells retain their cell surface marker expression levels in comparison to controls, over both short and long time points. Therefore, these studies further push back the frontiers of both bio-electrosprays and aerodynamically assisted bio-jetting in their endeavor as novel strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative biologymedicine with possible targeted clinical utility
Design-for-Trust Techniques for Digital Microfluidic Biochip Layout with Error Control Mechanism
Among recent technological advances, microfluidic biochips have been leading a prominent solution for healthcare and miniaturized bio-laboratories with the assurance of high sensitivity and reconfigurability. On increasing more unreliable communication networks day-by-day, technological shifts in the fields of communication and security are now converging. In today’s cyber threat landscape, these microfluidic biochips are ripe targets of powerful cyber-attacks from different hackers or cyber-criminals. Hence, securing such systems is of paramount importance. This paper presents the security aspects of digital microfluidic (DMF) biochip layout to protect the confidentiality of layout data from unscrupulous people and man-in-the-middle attacks. We propose an authentication mechanism with an error control mechanism that provides reliability, authentication, trustworthy and safety for both storage and communication of GDS, i.e., Graphical Design System, file generally used for DMF biochip layouts. Simulation results articulate the efficacy of the proposed security model without the overhead of the bioprotocol completion time. The proposed scheme, which used AES as an encryption algorithm with a 256-bit encryption key, has also shown a speedup of 6.0 (with 85% efficiency) faster than the prior efficient scheme. We hope to develop a secure layout design flow for DMF biochips to achieve better resistance to any attack